邱文宝 /Voon Pow Bartlett    翻译:姚青

原文载于: Yishu典藏国际版July/August 2015, volume 14, number 4. P28-43.

黑色方块的冒险:抽象艺术与社会1915-2015,于2015年1月15日在伦敦白教堂美术馆(Whitechapel Gallery)对公众开放。白教堂美术馆的新闻通稿称其为“一场意义重大的新展览,梳理着从1915年至今一个世纪抽象艺术的脉络……”1展览的目的在于“重新审视”艺术、社会和政治之间的关系,给几何抽象艺术之进化带来新认识。展览的一百多件作品来自80位现当代艺术家,其中一些艺术家更是享有跨国甚至洲际知名度,例如俄罗斯的卡西米尔·马列维奇(Kasimir Malevich)——这在他著名画作黑与白至上主义组合(Black and White Suprematist Composition, 1915)诞生一百周年之际也就不足为奇了。其他如雷贯耳的大名还有:亚历山大·罗德琴科(Alexander Rodchenko),卡尔·安德烈(Carl Andre),丹·弗拉文(Dan Flavin),罗斯玛丽·特洛科尔(Rosemarie Trockel),特奥·凡·度斯堡(Theo Van Doesburg),皮埃·蒙德里安(Piet Mondrian)。展览使用了美术馆两层楼的绝大部分空间。为我们展现了结构主义艺术从兴起之初在俄罗斯与欧洲作为先锋艺术的革命性开始,到2015年遍布世界各地的漫漫过程。其中包括了中国、中东和南美。

对馆长伊娃娜·布雷兹维克(Iwona Blazwick)来说,抽象艺术是“是进步地平线上的岬角。它在研究上的空白意味着令人兴奋的未知元素和充满想象空间的多重可能”2在早期几何抽象艺术提议与“新型社会组织”建立联系的基础上。新闻通稿说明了本次展览的四个主题归纳如下:1)“乌托邦”,想象了一个新的超越等级和阶级的理想社会;2)“建筑学”,展现了抽象艺术如何加强社会转型的空间;3)“传播”,观察了抽象艺术调动彻底改革的可能性;4)“日常生活”,追寻了抽象艺术如何渗透到视觉艺术的各个层面,从公司标识到纺织品设计。

我将先快速评估一下展览评论和思想前提,接着我将深入地讨论两位参与展览的中国艺术家。其他的展评也提到了该展览中几何图形的多样性和可塑性。阿拉斯太尔·斯玛特(Alastair Smart)在电讯报中写道,“基于简单的方块,圆圈,三角形,和长方形图案;展览展现了艺术家在过去的一百年里在抽象艺术中体现出的不可思议的创造性”;Time Out杂志也写道“这是一场不是方块的几何展出”。也有其它嘲讽式的声音,声称展览呈现出“旨在改变世界的艺术…有着宏大的革命性方式…而缺乏普通观察”;卫报的劳拉·卡明(Laura Cumming)注意到,“马列维奇在没有背景语境的情况下呈现于这场展览里,没有提及它原本在立体主义中的根源和一战的毁灭。”4

展览的基本前提是:上个世纪是目前人类历史上最民主的一个世纪。抽象艺术是艺术史上最民主的艺术类型,它也很好地呈现并服务了人类的进程。但这次展览对艺术家的筛选过程,却不是透明民主的并引起了争议。虽然这可能也并没有错。卫报的卡明对于一些更知名的抽象艺术家被排除在外表示哀叹:“一些我们最珍视且尚在人世的艺术家,如布里奇特·赖利(Bridget Riley)、弗兰克·斯特拉(Frank Stella)、罗伯特·曼戈尔德(Robert Mangold)、埃斯沃兹·凯利(Ellsworth Kelly)——都是抽象画家。但是去到白教堂美术馆的抽象展览看一看,在整个大型展览里这些人一个都找不到。”5我猜测,其中一个筛选的前提有可能是白教堂美术馆对历史上“第一次”的认同。比如在他们当中有毕加索的名作格尔尼卡,于1939年在白教堂展出,这也是它第一次并且是唯一一次在英国的展出;1958年美国抽象表现主义艺术家杰克逊·波洛克(Jackson Pollock)第一次在英国的重要展出;以及1970年和1971年大卫·霍克尼(David Hockney),吉尔伯特&乔治(Gilbert & George),理查德·朗(Richard Long)的第一次展出。其他包括在这次展览中的艺术家也有很多因“第一”而受到赞美。例如萨劳阿·劳乌达·仇蔡尔(Saloua Raouda Choucair)在1940年代创作抽象艺术,被认为是第一位当代阿拉伯世界的抽象画家;拉希德·阿拉恩(Rasheed Araeen)是第一位在英国用模块化金属原件工作的巴基斯坦艺术家;还有巴西艺术家何烈·欧提西卡(Helio Oiticica)第一次伦敦个人展览就是1969年在白教堂举办的。

艺术家筛选过程更困扰我的是两位中国艺术家的入选,他们从一个和抽象艺术的艺术运动毫无关系的背景而来。赵要和刘韡,同印度艺术家那斯仁·默罕默德(Nasreen Mohamedi)以及捷克艺术家贝拉·寇拉洛娃(Bela Kolarova)一起填补了一个更大的世界舞台的空白。这就像是战后日本和韩国的抽象艺术,或者像伊斯兰艺术的几何图形中固有的抽象艺术。

一个可能但让人不愿接受的原因是,这些艺术带来的交换价值。所有起初和几何抽象艺术有关的理想主义现今都和大型集团公司开始商业合作了。电讯报的阿拉斯太尔·斯玛特这样写道“展览的故事可能开始于20世纪初共产主义头晕的阵痛中,但它肯定终结于21世纪资本主义冷酷无情的控制下了。”6随着最近中国当代艺术商业的成功,就不难想象为何赵要和刘韡会入选此次展览。或许是巧合,或许不是,赵要在作品中所用的牛仔布又一次成为了今春服装店的宠儿。这种艺术与时尚的结合不禁让人联想到60年代布里奇特·赖利和她为时尚印刷图案所做的贡献。一条项目录确认了这个:“牛仔布……一种西部无产阶级耐久性的理想材料,让人想起1980年代中国的风尚…”7

但中国艺术家抽象艺术的背景语境是什么呢?抽象艺术在21世纪为年轻一代中国艺术家,像赵要和刘韡提供的不仅是商业的可能性。它可以是对一切崭新的、自由的、激动人心的事物来一次全心全意的拥抱。这就像在1934年苏联政府强制把社会现实主义作为官方政策时,抽象艺术对马列维奇以及他同时代人所产生的影响。抽象艺术还能提供一个新的理论框架和语言。一个受欢迎的并与过去决裂的一种自愿的遗忘“一种故意失忆的艺术”8

抽象艺术在中国的历史,要从1949年以后中国政府因其腐朽的资本主义内涵而被禁止开始。9受结构主义和至上主义的影响,抽象艺术和中国艺术家有一种特有的共鸣。因为他们共享一种社会变革的冲动,因理想主义而具革命性。因为毛时代的革命功利主义的意识形态还有遗留,中国艺术家对早期俄罗斯画作应该不难产生认同。这些画展现了当时的艺术家是如何从旧的习俗中解放出来的。

马列维奇的黑色四边形,无日期,明显是此次展览的核心,象征着他对抽象高声宣告。它会挣脱与大地的纽带,升高到天空平流层的精神层面:“跟着我,飞行员同志,朝着峡谷进发!”10它还能代表一种对西方压迫性政体的逃离。典型的例子是伟大的拉美先驱艺术家,他们逃离了欧洲天主教殖民者的传统残余——例如何烈·欧提西卡(Helio Oiticica)、丽姬娅·裴普(Lygia Pape),丽姬娅·卡拉克(Lygia Clark)等人的作品,以及其他1950年代晚期巴西新具体主义运动参与者的作品。对中国艺术家来说,抽象艺术也是一种拒绝传统艺术创作方法的途径,是改变历史进步的进程与中国梦的象征。11也是去除旧秩序,开始新社会的愿景。布雷兹维克说抽象艺术是“让画家习惯脱离具体实物的新视野…创造了广大的同人联盟…跨越了时间和地域的阻隔…在单一的非历史的通用平台上就可获得”12

赵要在白教堂的作品属于2013年在伦敦佩斯画廊首次展出的一个系列。它看起来像是一本集合抽象图形的手册。画布上的组成“看起来像是兔子耳朵的圆圈和三角形的组合;方块上叠加圆圈,看起来像是立在棱上和斜边上的立方体的长方体,但却没有顶……五边形,八边形,平行四边形,和互相交叉的圆环…”13 抽象艺术对他的吸引力可能源于他对数学谜题的着迷。14这种看似数学般的建筑可以追溯回1990年代中国的新刻度小组。这些作品“旨在消除个性和主观任意性”去创造“基于数学公式定理”的作品。15这种来自数学逻辑的力量是对不断涉及机械美学的回响。它们可以在马列维奇的剪刀研磨机(1912)、柳波夫·波波娃(Lyubov Popova)的绘画建筑学(1916)当中看到。在赵要的作品中,这样的痕迹可以在精神高于一切I-93A(2012)的长方体和精神高于一切I-259(2012)的黑色圆圈当中看到。后者让人想起厄尔·李思兹基(El Lissitzky)的Proun组合(1925)。赵要或是故意,或是不经意地在庆祝或挑战一种中国“未完成革命”的审美。16或许他只是愤世嫉俗,像是罗伯特·德劳内(Robert Delaunay),并非要与机械美学产生联系。但正如罗伯特·休斯(Robert Hughes)所说那样,沐浴在现代性成就的光辉下,于1911年画了30次艾菲尔铁塔。也或许赵要是在试着接近一战后费迪南·莱热的玩牌人(1917)当中的敬畏和憎恶。17

赵要的每一件作品都是和观众联合努力的成果。他的作品承认观众的存在,展现一种与观者沟通的意愿,并表示友好。他解释说他的一些作品就像是电视剧和观众的关系:“可以把我最近作品之间的联系理解为类似电视剧之间的关系。”18

赵要的作品还象征着一种和构成主义运动把观众包含进来的一样的意愿。维克多·什克洛夫斯基(Viktor Shklovsky)(1893-1984),一位俄罗斯和前苏联文学理论家、批评家、作家,想要让观众的理解“去自动化”。他想要通过把熟悉的事物变得不熟悉,来鼓励观众去提高理解的能力以便通过艺术学习生活。赵要在伦敦佩斯画廊的草席和纪录片式的摄影集(展现了他的作品被带到了一座西藏的山里,四处散放在画廊的地板上),显示出他想通过艺术鼓励观众学习,发掘更多的思考,而不是让大多数观众在画廊里步履匆匆地对作品一扫而过。

这种把参观者积极的包含在内的做法,也可能是对早期中国艺术家认为艺术应该有社会目的或把做艺术变成一项社会工程的继承。1930年代延安鲁迅美术学院的革命艺术家们,如木刻家古元与当地农民交流并邀请他们来批评自己的艺术作品。1980年代的中国的乡村现实主义,一开始被称为伤痕艺术,描绘了文化大革命对农村和边境地区普通百姓的影响。罗中立的父亲(1980)就是一个非常有影响的例子。它把关注的焦点从明星和政要转移到了普通人身上;把一位普通的晒的黝黑的农民提升为了艺术对象。现今还有一些中国艺术家在集体和公有制上做文章,讽刺地追溯毛时代。赵要提倡一种更多参与艺术的实践,旨在打通艺术和生活的界限。而很多中国艺术家在作者类似的事情,比如艾未未在我们这个媒体驱动的时代,很著名地过着表演式的生活。张培力的作品充满了挑衅和煽动。徐震作品的不敬与有趣和郑国谷的敏感并列在一起,如此等等。

这种社会倾向可能为赵要入选此次展览提供了另一个解释,因为展览的部分前提是“当代艺术家受社会和身边不断进化的世界的影响,仍在实验和挑战表述和现实的概念。”19这最典型的例子就是展览包含了萨拉·莫里斯(Sarah Morris)2008年的电影北京,2008,对北京日常生活的叙述,尽管唯一出现的几何图案是在背景里飘扬的中国国旗。布雷兹维克明确表示出她是绝对支持抽象艺术的社会功用的。并间接指出从展示的成规、表述和类型流派解放出来后,“抽象艺术在美学上消解了社会和政治等级,并且甚至能延伸到实际生活中…”20

有趣的是马列维奇和赵要在某种程度上都被神秘主义所吸引,在艺术中表达一种超越物质的精神真理。对马列维奇来说,抽象艺术的顶峰可以通过无限的、精神的上帝和“至高无上的纯粹感觉”来达到。对赵要来说,对抽象艺术的经验主义的探索为通向精神领域提供了可能性。他希望通过观察、记录、浓缩、和概念化他带着作品的长途旅程来达成。在精神高于一切I-93A(2012)里,印有几何图案的六边形的画布悬挂在有着西藏群山的风景照片的墙上,几何和超验在此结合了起来。赵要并非信徒,他还是被西藏人们和他们去拉萨(上帝之城)的系统性朝圣所打动。以至于他将作品艰难而危险地(对人和作品来说都是如此)运送进西藏的山里让活佛进行加持。在佛教里,活佛是之前的菩萨转世。

 

如果黑色方块的冒险是马列维奇黑色方块的生日宴会,那么刘韡则是一名不速之客。刘韡在展览中的作品,紫气2号(2014),几乎完全和马列维奇的作品对立。前者是棱角分明的,机器制造的,荧光的;而后者从黑与白至上主义组合(1915)来看,则是脆弱的,不确定的,手绘的。前者拥有几何的精准,并让人望而却步的。刘韡的作品是穿不透的,而马列维奇的作品则是优雅老去的。黑与白原本的边界潜移默化地相互渗透着。21刘韡的画似乎是静止的,不可渗透的,缺乏活力但却雄辩。紫色,粉色,绿色,和蓝色突兀地堆在一起。感官经验上试图去研究这色彩的喧嚣,却被瀑布般的从画上射出的频率和闪光打断了。

但是,对我来说,刘韡的强项在于他作品的多样性。很多中国艺术家通过他们作品的识别度在近期的艺术史中赢得了一席之地。但刘韡不是这样,对他来说,熟悉是乏味的,原创性才是关键。他作品中的区别几乎是不可调和的,例如白教堂的紫色2号和早先的作品消化不良II(2004)。后者是用一种石化产业的副产品——沥青堆出的两米高的一堆排泄物。爱它!咬它!(2006),是用一种给狗吃的可食用的生牛皮骨头做的(狗咬胶)。纵观刘韡的全部作品,抽象艺术并不是他的习惯性思维,尽管他在黑色方块的冒险中的作品可能如此。

尽管缺乏赵要明显的与观众之间合作或是与西藏的联系,刘韡一些迥然不同的作品也同样带有一种社会评论,尽管是尖刻的。消化不良II就是对当代城市生活和城市建筑的探索。据刘韡所说,作品的想法来源于“一张画上面有个巨人,吞下了沿途的所有东西,又在有参观者路过前全部排泄出来了。如果仔细观察排泄物,就会发现他贪婪地吞下的东西不是都能消化的。不能消化的残余物构成了一个迷你的战争场面。”22的确,近距离地仔细观察就会发现不能消化的排泄物的“核心”是成百上千的塑料玩具模型士兵,飞机和战争武器。这是对一些发达国家的揶揄,它们因为进步而发胖,却也饱受战争、贪婪和当今不可持续消费的折磨。在爱它!咬它!里,地板上一堆标志性的建筑模型拥挤地堆积在一起,像罗马竞技场、古根海姆博物馆,还有其他巨大宏伟的公共空间、摩天大楼、和教堂。作品就像是三维的西方文化历史浓缩成了苍白的,鬼魅的碎片。

同样的,尽管不能一眼看出来,紫气2号也是一种社会评论,风格化的摩天大厦式的城市空间映射着城市化的发展。据白教堂目录条目称,“一个复杂抽象的由垂直霓虹色彩的线条组成的网格,暗示着不断变换的城市景观和人在超级大都市里的异化和腐化。”23引用刘韡的话,“城市就是现实;整个中国就是一个正在建设中的城市,这当然影响了我。”24

这也许就是为何刘韡的作品被囊括在了“建筑学”标题的板块下,此版块旨在探寻工业化和城市化所带来的影响。我们在其中一瞥抽象艺术如何辅助了情感和心理上的宣泄。即使对处于中国艺术世界的一些人来说,20世纪西方概念里的抽象艺术也并不存在,25但它却仍然是中国艺术家有用的工具,他们生活在过去二十年里逐渐揭开的纷乱的能量和洋溢的热情中。强调抽象艺术的革命性根源呼应了当今中国的社会和政治改革里矛盾而破碎的“另一种现代性”。抽象艺术对工业社会日益抽象的社会关系举起了一面阿多诺式的镜子。深思它的社会内容,中国社会存在的抽象本质,26是有益处的。因为中国在全球化的过程中与世界碰撞,金钱和权力替代了旧的社会价值。

从展览广泛的作品中还能很清楚得看到,抽象艺术给艺术家提供了与意义做游戏的可能,甚至是去反抗意义和增进理解。据布雷兹维克说,几何抽象艺术能让艺术家和他们的社群“甩掉文化的包袱、重写国家认同、超越中心和边缘的地缘政治”,以达到一种“更真实的现实。”27平心而论,白教堂的展览并没能像马列维奇的黑色方块在1915年首次展出时对圣彼得堡的公众那样,引发了一场精神上的骚动。28但是,讽刺的是尽管抽象艺术看上去已经失去了革命性的冲动,并且更多地被用作描述反乌托邦的存在。当代艺术家仍然在探索它变化多端、含义丰富的特点。把它作为通向希望(如果不是乌托邦的话)的大道。事实上,几何抽象在21世纪之交似乎批评了它自相矛盾的历史,但它“仍然承诺着不确定的、未知的和政治的…批评家不能轻松统治黑白单色的空白。这是一张疯狂的牌,一种积极的无意识。”29

抽象艺术不确定性的本质可能就是其吸引中国艺术家之处。白杰明(geremie r barme)的“国家虚无主义”称,一些人认为即使是“怯懦的实用主义和投机主义”也不能解决。30这种假定的可悲虚无被控以“国家虚无主义”,杜绝了任何的哲学怀疑主义,或绝对文化翻译里不可能性的审视;抑或是对协同转移的审问。37“国家虚无主义”拒绝艺术实践挑战审查特色经济模型在社会运行以及历史和当代的关系中发展的话语的可能性。最紧要的是缺乏一个话语互动的空间来审视这些矛盾和误解。

虚无主义的概念对理解赵要在白教堂的作品很有帮助。一方面,他作为艺术家为人非常和蔼可亲,以至于把他的作品弱化到了优柔寡断的程度。他的作品和装置看起来并没有任何形式或逻辑的统领。事实上赵要本人在一次线上采访中(2013年1月31日)向笔者透露,他的装置中没有社会意义或精神关系。其实它们只是一种实验,以此来看各种元素怎样影响,以及怎样和观众互动。头脑风暴思维游戏的几何图案是为了更深入地探索艺术和观众的关系。另一方面,对非主流艺术来说,总有绝对翻译的不可能性、文化含义的多样性、和艺术谜性的问题(第二个问题话题太大,余下的文章不予讨论)。从跨文化的角度看,虚无主义不一定是覆盖着铁丝网的。当然,虚无主义很容易让人联想到尼采的生存焦虑,但同样让人想起的还有东方视角,诸如佛教信条中的无为和涅槃或道教中的空虚和顺其自然,这些也可以是肯定和积极的。31佛教传播一种从虚无的此世中抽身的理念,可以理解为逃避痛苦的厌世哲学。它对一些人来说这是他们所向往的宗教。“无”(虚无)在道教中,也可以有积极的含义,指人从万千尘世烦恼和欲望中解脱出来。

赵要试图获得更真实的现实并没有像策展人布雷兹维克所说的那样扔掉文化的包袱是抽象艺术的特点之一。32相反,他通过西藏来反映佛教,在他看来,这样做可以为作品带来更深的潜在意义或多层意义的外界元素;质疑藏在作品表面的形式和象征意义下的内容。33这就自圆其说地解释了虚无主义并不都是消极和负面的,不止是一味否定,也可以有积极的意义。把几何抽象艺术和藏传佛教的景观结合在一起,对预想标准和规范概念以及宗教和哲学思想的理解提出疑问。这就像马列维奇对“充满了非主观感知精神”的至上主义作品的探索一样。

刘韡相反地,并没有透露多少关于他自己或作品的内容。Chen Xhingyu在艺术:当代中国艺术期刊中写道,他更愿意挑战观众,让观众去思考他们和艺术的关系,用艺术的力量去得到第一手的体验,尽管可能是通过一些日常平凡的情境。34选择像迷中迷谜局这样的标题更加深了高深莫测的意味。但据刘韡本人所说,这种沉默和保留是因为被误解和被歪曲,“我真的对我要表达的和最后被表达出来的意思之间的不符感到非常困惑。这也就是为什么我不再写东西也不再情愿接受采访了。”35白教堂展现出来的他是沉默寡言的;他的作品是关于意义的民主化的。引用他说的话“(在一个空间里)拥有什么东西是特别关于身体,是你可以感觉到的。我只是中间人,起到抛砖引玉的作用。这就是民主,但是一旦我开始解释其中的意思,我就变成了力量实体,变成了霸权。”36

哲学精神与理解感知的表述结合在中国文化里面自古有之。它存在于园艺和书法中,为中国艺术打下基础。吴冠中描述为“抽象的美,无对象,只有形式。”37这与乌托邦的探寻和中国梦里渴求的理想主义产生了共鸣。根据网上的中文字典Chindict乌托邦的中文翻译是世外桃花源。也有不同的版本,例如“长生不老蟠桃园”,“梦中富足之乡”和“香格里拉”。抽象艺术给中国艺术家提供了一个有趣的平台,来寻求他们的中国梦和继续未完成的革命。它让艺术家从艺术的资产阶级狂热中解放出来,虽然讽刺的是却把他们变成了艺术制度化的奴隶。

抽象艺术自身邀请一种乌托邦的审视,据策展人布雷兹维克说“抽象艺术的漂浮、空间感的动态让它和乌托邦的‘无所在’相似。”38它允许了对美丽新世界的反乌托邦式的戏仿。在1983年的清除精神污染的运动中,中国政府视抽象艺术的“无所在”为残留的资产阶级腐朽思想。39

赵要和刘韡黑色方块的冒险中的作品展现出了中国艺术家的洞察力。他们不是模仿者而是拥有马列维奇式的勇气、创造性,适应性地作为去探寻抽象艺术智力潜能的艺术家,与国际观众沟通和审视意义。我乐于见到这种潜力的包容性,不只是对于国际平台和市场而言,更被看着是一个从本地视角构建意义的沟通空间。在最终的分析中,在这个加速困惑的时代——憎恶、矛盾、怀旧混合着遗忘。审查和自我审查,如果不是从传统、偏见、官场而来;便是从不久之前的创伤而来。抽象艺术表现出使一切成为可能,以及让人们更好地掌控信息的能力。机械美学容纳能动性,也同样具备反话题的潜力。这像策展人布雷兹维克所说,让艺术家堕落至“言听计从的服从者或流水线上的机器人”。40更乐观地说,我愿意这能引向新的全球关系。我指的是艺术与它所在地和全球社会环境的互动下中国备受崇敬的,古已有之的社会价值“关系”而形成一个完整的圆。

参考文献

1. http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/about/press/adventures-black-square-abstract-art-society-1915-2015/.

2. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 15.

3. http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/about/press/adventures-black-square-abstract-art-society-1915-2015/.

4. Alastair Smart, “Abstract Art and Society 1915–2015, Whitechapel Gallery, review: ‘A journey worth taking’,” The Telegraph, January 14, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/art-reviews/11344507/Abstract-Art-and-Society-1915-2015-Whitechapel-Gallery-review-a-journey-worth-taking.html/.

The Bottom Line, ed. Martin Coomer, “Adventures of the Black Square,” Time Out, January 27–February 2, 2015, 73.

Laura Cumming, “Art That Aimed to Change the World,” The Guardian, January 18, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/jan/18/adventures-of-the-black-square-review-whitechapel-abstract-art-that-aimed-to-change-the-world/.

5. Cumming, “Adventures of the Black Square.”

6. Smart, “Abstract Art and Society 1915–2015.”

7. Catalogue entry for Zhao Yao in Adventures of the Black Square, 276.

8. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 17. Blazwick quotes art historian Benjamin Buchloh’s description of what abstraction was able to offer in the aftermath of the Second World War in Europe.

9. Michael Sullivan, “Orthodoxy and Individualism in Twentieth-Century Chinese Art”, Artists and Traditions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 202. “The ban in China since 1949 on abstract expressionism, op art, kinetic art, minimal art etc., was not instituted on stylistic grounds. For example, theorists have said that China has no need of abstraction not on formalistic grounds but that abstraction was related to decadent capitalist culture but because China ‘already has, in calligraphy, a highly abstract art of her own’.”

10. Cumming quoting Kasimir Malevich, “Adventures of the Black Square review.”

11. The Chinese dream is popularly associated with Xi Jinping; it was his party slogan during his visit to the National Musem of China in November 2012 and frequently appears in the press.

12. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 15. Blazwick quotes critic and art historian Meyer Schapiro, art historian.

13. Voon Pow Bartlett, “Zhao Yao: Spirit Above All,” Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 12, no. 4 (July/August 2013), 77–86.

14. Zhao Yao, in conversation with the author, May 31, 2013.

15. Wu Hung, Chinese Art at the Crossroads (London: New Arts Media Ltd., 2001), 206.

16. “China’s Unfinished Revolution” is the title of a talk given by Jonathan Fenby on April 30, 2013, that the author attended, at King’s College, London. The speaker assessed the challenges facing China today and considered what the next generation of leaders will need to do to continue the revolution set in motion by Deng Xioaping. “But the basic line remains as it was with Deng Xiaoping in 1978 to keep the red flag flying and to ensure that politics runs the world’s second biggest economy,” he said. Transcription of talk by Jonathan Fenby. http://www.chathamhouse.org/publications/papers/view/183657#sthash.bLSDNH2g.dpuf/.

17. Robert Hughes, “Mechanical Paradise,” in The Shock of the New (Thames and Hudson, London, 1992), 9.

18. English translation by the author of an interview with the artist (31.5.2013), in which he said, “我把我最近的创作作比作电视剧.”

19. http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/about/press/adventures-black-square-abstract-art-society-1915-2015/.

20. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 15.

21. As Adrian Searle puts it, “Malevich’s Black Square was made by a human, not a machine. Other artists in Adventures of the Black Square, the new exhibition at the Whitechapel, might draw straighter lines, disguise their touch and achieve more accurate geometries, but it doesn’t make them better.” See Adrian Searle, “Planet of the shapes: how art and society were driven to abstraction,” Guardian, January 14, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/jan/14/abstract-art-adventures-of-the-black-square-whitechapel-review-planet-of-the-shapes/. “Malevich’s legacy and its “hard-edged blackness” has become metaphorical. Time has taken its toll but has graced it with a beauty that even he might not have imagined. The black edges seemed to have liquefied into the white background, and the white background has developed a delicious buttery shade, making the whole painting shimmer.”

22. “Liu Wei,” Saatchi Gallery, http://www.saatchigallery.com/artists/liu_wei.htm/.

23. Catalogue entry for Liu Wei, in Adventures of the Black Square, 271.

24. Guo Xiaoyan, “Liu Wei,” in Breaking Forecast: 8 Key Figures of China’s New Generation Artists, eds. Guo Xiaoyan, Jer?me Sans (Hong Kong: Timezone 8, 2010).

25. Gao Minglu, Total Modernity and the Avant-Garde in Twentieth-century Chinese Art (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2011), 311: “Paintings by Malevich, Kandinsky, Mondrian, and Newman which were made in a utopian and abstract spirit and presented in pure, two-dimensional, geometric forms, can hardly be found in Chinese abstract art.”

26. Henry Geldzahler, New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940–1970 (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art, 1969), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_art#cite.

27. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

28. Maks Karpovets, “Kazimir Malevich: the Ukrainian roots of his avant-garde art,” 27 December 2011 – 00:0, Time Out, no. 76, 2011 (this link can be found on  http://www.day.kiev.ua/en/arhiv/no76-2011).

http://www.day.kiev.ua/en/article/time-out/kazimir-malevich-ukrainian-roots-his-avant-garde-art, 1.6.15. According to the article, Malevich’s Black Square presented a challenge to common sense and morals. “For Petersburg (sic) public, the avant-garde exhibit was a challenge to common sense and morals. The audience felt fooled, seeing the primitivism and vulgarity of the canvases which were an overt mockery of the visitors’ intellectual abilities.”

29. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, Ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 18. Blazwick quotes Angeline Morrison.

30. Geremie R. Barmé, In The Red (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 104, n14, 413. According to Barmé, ‘National Nihilism’, 民族虚无主义minzhu xuwu zhuyi, has become one of China’s bugbears, a form of cultural treason.

31. Nietzsche’s idea of nihilism is often misunderstood as agnostic and suggesting an abyss of nothingness. Many scholars believe that he was actually an affirmative thinker, one who endorsed moral values and our capacity to create our own moral compass. He also saw in humanity the potential to overcome the malaise of modernity in late nineteenth-century Europe. http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/135404/ and Wayne Klein, “Nietzsche and the promise of philosophy” (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 34.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5mUIBCGhpkUC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=misunderstanding+nietzsche&source=bl&ots=S7bKOKFtQd&sig=1Wf9w2AOdNgwJKt7MZQjkjwXwDA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JGBsVbj7BYKlsgGSvreACQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=misunderstanding%20nietzsche&f=false, accessed 1.6.15.

32. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

33. Zhao Yao, e-mail conversation between author and the artist, August 5, 2014.

http://www.mdbg.net/chindict/chindict.php?page=worddict&wdrst=0&wdqb=utopia/.

34.  Xhingyu Chen, “Liu Wei: Trilogy,” in Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art, Volume 10, Number 5 (September/October 2011), 91–98.

35. “The Return of the Individual: A Home Conversation at the Beijing Pavilion,” November 4, 2007, Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 7, no. 3 (May/June 2008), 70–77.

36. Iwona Blazwick and Magnus af Petersens, “Architectonics”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 61.

37. As quoted in Gao Minglu, Total Modernity, 81.

38. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

39. Gao Minglu, Total Modernity, 80.

40. Iwona Blazwick, “Utopia”, in Adventures of the Black Square, ed. Iwona Blazwick (London: Whitechapel Gallery and Prestel Publishing, 2015), 16.

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COSMIC WONDER

Zhao Yao, The Power of Nature, 2016–18. The Workers’ Stadium, Beijing. Photo: UCCA.

EARLIER THIS MONTH, the artist Zhao Yao experienced what it’s like to be a pop star, preparing for a one-show-only event at the Workers’ Stadium in Beijing. Built on the tenth anniversary of the new China in 1959, the stadium has been a cultural and sports center for the past six decades, accommodating various activities, but mostly football games and pop music concerts in recent years. It’s also surrounded by the most popular nightclubs in Beijing.

To the stadium, Zhao brought his 108,000-square-foot painting, The Power of Nature. Think of it as a massive rug made of cloth and fabric, on which are abstract patterns that are typical to Zhao’s long-term painting practice. (He’s known for appropriating colorful but intricate pictures from brain-teaser books in his paintings.) At 6 AM on May 18th, Zhao and some fifty people from his team loaded the rolled work in and unraveled it in the football field.

Details »

Three leading artists explore the complex notion of a multi-ethnic national identity in post-globalization China
BY COLIN CHINNERY

While I was writing this article, in February 2018, the artist Zhao Yao received permission to rent the iconic Workers’ Stadium in north-eastern Beijing for one day in May. His intention was to show an abstract composition on fabric, measuring 116 × 86 m, which was produced in 2016 and initially displayed 5,000 m above sea level on a mountainside in Qinghai province on the Tibetan Plateau. Independently, last October, Zhao Zhao brought a camel and its keeper from the far western region of Xinjiang to Tang Contemporary Art in Beijing. His exhibition, ‘Desert Camel’, was a coda to the major work Project Taklamakan (2015–16), for which the artist transported a functioning refrigerator to the middle of the Taklamakan Desert. Zhuang Hui, meanwhile, has been visiting the Qilian Mountains in Gansu province for the past seven years,  exploring the geography and culture of the region through photography, video and installation. All three artists live and work in Beijing, yet have spent years working on  projects relating to the far west of China, a region loaded with historical and political contention.Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet and Xinjiang collectively form the great western flank of modern China. Consisting largely of impassable mountains and inhospitable deserts, these vast regions represent about 40 percent of the country’s landmass but house only four percent of its population. Areas of vital strategic importance to modern China, they are also home to peoples with their own ethnic and cultural identities, which frequently clash with Beijing’s objectives. Consequently, it has been an important part of modern Chinese politics to develop the notion of a multi-ethnic national consciousness.

Zhao Yao, Spirit Above All, 2016–17, project documentation, Nangqian County. Courtesy: the artist

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PLAY

LU PINGYUAN, SHANG LIANG, ZHAO YAO

2018.05.12 to 2018.06.23MadeIn Gallery, No 106, 2879 Longteng Avenue, Shanghai

“Man plays only, where he in the full meaning of the word is man,
and he is only there fully man, where he plays.”

—— Friedrich Schiller

MadeIn Gallery is pleased to present “Play” an exhibition showcasing new paintings and sculptures by Lu Pingyuan, Shang Liang and Zhao Yao. In this exhibition, three artists’ works commonly share a spirit of lightness and playfulness, bringing aesthetics, concepts and art into the field of game. As a method for the observation of art, game arises in the gallery space.

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The Power of Nature:

A Ten Thousand Square Meter Painting in Beijing

自然的力量:一万平米作品在北京

2018.5.18

工人体育场

Workers’ Stadium

 

尤伦斯当代艺术中心(UCCA)携手艺术家赵要,于2018年5月18日在北京工人体育场呈现艺术项目“自然的力量:一万平米作品在北京”。此次项目将呈现艺术家历时三年完成的10, 000平米大型装置作品:艺术家将这件长116米、宽 86米的大型装置作品置于人迹罕至的自然环境中,经历半年的风吹日晒后撤下并回收展示。这是作品撤回至城市后的首次展示,是作品最重要的发展和全新的延续。

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赵要:它就是对“崇高”进行解压缩的一次过程

2016年11月23日,一幅长116米宽86米大型画布从青海省玉树藏族自治区州囊谦县白扎乡的摩耶寺山脚下开始了一段“爬坡”的征程。作为赵要2012-2013年曾在佩斯伦敦展出的同名项目“精神高于一切”的延展,这次的“晒布仪式”是艺术家从城市经验出发,对“精神性”和“崇高性”的一次再探索。而把地点放在了海拔近5000米高的山顶无人区,通过仁波切和当地200多人的共同协作将这一尺寸接近于巨型唐卡的“画”在荒芜的山坡表面缓慢铺开,赵要认为这是一种做作品的反向过程,不再是将所有的探索浓缩在一个作品里,而是像把压缩包一个个打开,把里面的各种意义、想法在过程中呈现在眼前。

2017年1月4日,曾尔尕山,多尕喇嘛在察看作品

ArtWorld: 能否先从这次的项目出发,谈谈“精神高于一切”这个名字与之前项目的关系?

赵要:2016年开始的《精神高于一切》项目本是那场2012-2013年在伦敦“精神高于一切”展览的延伸和发展。当时展出的作品主要也是《很有想法的绘画》,但之后我想改变一下这些绘画的体验感,所以就想到了跟宗教进行结合。宗教这个东西就是你可以怀疑它,但不能完全否定它。所以,我就把那批同样现成游戏的图案,用黑白丙烯画在了牛仔布上,大概有6、7件的样子,然后运到了青海玉树囊谦的寺庙那里。那是在2012年的冬天,当时玉树也地震完,用卡车运过去的过程比较艰苦。当时一套完整的作品其实包括有墙上的黑白寺庙照片,它们很能符合我们对于精神性的想象,而画就挂在了照片上。这是一个影集,是按时间排序展示慢慢一路过去的场景。这三样东西东西合成了一件完整的作品。

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A Painting of Thought I-542 | 很有想法的绘画 I-542

A Painting of Thought I-542 is a work that is composed of three paintings. As a further step in the development of A Painting of Thought, brand-new texture and pattern are added into color blocks of high-purity acrylic, which triggers reactions to “the marbled” as a collective aestheticism on different cultural and cognitive levels. The reactions are then taken into the work as a part of the experience. The mass-produced, ready-made fabric and patterns in the same batch but in different colors are used repeatedly in the work, which demonstrates the “systematization” in industrial products that is transformed into an aesthetic move. The pattern of “thinking puzzle” duplicates itself for multiple times on the fabric and is applied to the fabric in the same way. The “undifferentiated” aestheticism presented by the “systematization” of mass production is carried into the experience of the work. The halo of the thick acrylic colors imitates the gloss of the highlight of children’s plastic toys, through which process the gloss of plastic products in the everyday experience of contemporary society is put into the painting and is transcended. A Painting of Thought is both serious and playful.
 
A Painting of Thought I-542
Each 180 x 200 x 8 cm, 4 paintings in total
Material: Acrylic on found fabric

简介: 全球青年文化之声 | www.vice.cn | 微博@VICE中国 |艺术家赵要完成了一件面积将近10000平方米的装置作品,从北京工厂运往青海玉树的摩耶寺。11月23日,当地100多名村民和喇嘛出动,经历一整天,共同把这个庞然大物抬到海拔5000米的雪山山顶,铺展开来。实施当天,我们和艺术家与作品一起坐在在大卡车里穿过长长的峡谷,来到雪山脚下,纪录下了这个作品的向山顶的搬运过程。

向雪山搬运一万平方米

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【预告】赵要最新10000m²大型装置”精神高于一切”11月23日即将呈现

2016.11.23 Spirit Above All

10, 000-square-meters work

Will be on display here

On November 23, 2016, Zhao Yao’s latest large-scale art work, Spirit Above All, will be carried out at Moye Temple in Baizha at Nangqian County, Yushu autonomous prefecture, Qinghai province. The 116-meter-wide-and-86-meter-long work is the continuation and development of Zhao Yao’s 2012 work of the same name, Spirit Above All. After more than two years’ preparation and production, the work has been successfully transported to the mountain of Moye Temple at the end of October. With the assistance and support of the temple and Chakme Rinpoche , the work will be carried to the snowy summit by more than 100 local villagers and then unfolded there, almost 5000 meters high above sea level. Selecting patterns of thinking puzzles from the series A Painting of Thought and employing large-scale Tibetan Thang-ga cloth sticker technique, the new Spirit Above All is produced according to the size of Thang-ga at Moye Temple (120×80 meters). The 10, 000-square-meters work will be installed at the mountain top, alongside the existing Buddhist sutra streamers, white pagoda, and cliffside murals in the valley, echoing the local natural and cultural environment. The work will be exposed to natural environment for a whole winter and then be collected and displayed. The project aims to establish multiple cultural projects via local cooperation under the theme of “drying painting”. Meanwhile, various changes of the work will be monitored and recorded, throughout which process the work will accept and welcome visitors continuously.

Please stay tuned! Details »

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他为什么要把机场做成地毯?现成品与抽象的艺术

整个人类历史,有一场巨大的抽象

赵要在金盏乡的工作室是典型的厂房,有一千平米左右。他有两个关于艺术的观念非常吸引人:第一,对现成品的运用不再是杜尚式的对现成物质的语境置换,例如大家熟悉的把小便池置换到美术馆,而是对现成思维的置换语境,也就是对教育习惯,审美习惯等精神习惯的重新审视和调离原岗位;第二,抽象艺术对他来说,不仅仅是形式的抽象,例如康定斯基的色块和波洛克的泼洒,而可以是对人类集体无意识的再现式抽象。

对现成思维的语境置换体现在很多作品中,比如赵要的系列绘画作品:《很有想法的绘画》。他的原理就是将非常常见的丙烯颜料在画面上堆积出厚厚的质感,然后将其慢慢打磨,出现一种塑料的感觉,整个画面完全不再是通常审美习惯中的丙烯绘画的平面感,而会给人一种塑料玩具的感受。再比如他在行为作品《伟大的表演》中设计的道具,就是在两块毛茸茸的假动物皮上,打印出两张新闻图片。这两张含有警察、围观群众、治安纠纷的新闻图片被抽象成一种万花筒般的图案,从远处完全感受不到现实和新闻的压力,而是一种被抽象和陌生化的美感。再由演员披挂上这两张动物皮进行萨满巫师一样的游走,给现实、潜意识、审美和宗教,都提出了一个充满魅力却无法解答的问题。把抽象转移到历史政治层面,则是赵要提出的一个革命性的概念。这个概念罕见地得到了西方抽象艺术史的承认。尽管中国传统的抽象完全自有其源深博大,西方的现当代抽象艺术却有一种血统性的傲慢,作为当代艺术的游戏规则制定者而一直很难接受其他文化的抽象艺术。
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赵要 |最后一个鸡蛋  ZhaoYao |The last egg

赵要谈最后一个鸡蛋

现居北京的观念艺术家赵要一直关注艺术形式背后起决定作用的诸多因素本文中赵要讲述了此次在北京公社最新个展最后一个鸡蛋的整体构想以及艺术在当代社会中如何通过对信息的调度和再处理成为捕捉和改变集体意识的有效载体展览将持续到108

我一直觉得在我的创作里没有什么个性可言所谓的特点个性其实是通过分析集体意识里的现象我称之为信息再对其进行重新加工再造而形成的而这种特点也是外部集体对所有这些东西重新审视之后产生的认识具体到这次展览我们花了大半年的时间制作一种人造蛋壳涂料试验了很多次最后在一名树脂化工专业的教授帮助下确定了现在的这个配方蛋壳涂料涂在第一个展厅的四面墙上但有特定的图案”。这些图案实际取自各行各业用来做数据分析的曲线图我选了波动比较大的7-8张图拼成一圈从形式上看这些锯齿状的起伏线很像剥开的蛋壳加上涂料的颜色一进门就会改变观众对白色墙体的印象让原来展厅的白墙看上去很有营养像鸡蛋的蛋白整个展览强调的也是这种调度关系作为生命和营养象征的蛋壳与作为理性分析工具的曲线图结合在一起能够引导出我们内部的很多情结无论是对自然的潜意识欲望还是对理性的依赖这跟我最近在四方美术馆展出的作品宇宙黑在旋转》(2016)有一定联系作品中铝板上涂的黑色颜料是奔驰汽车的一款喷漆这么工业化的原料却被叫做宇宙黑”。不光是奔驰所有国产车进口车都有类似的颜色命名系统我觉得这在某种程度上揭示了我们内心对大自然或风景的一种潜意识欲望或抽象认识那件作品比较有意思的一点是,“宇宙黑这个名字跟天空以及整个装置仰望天空跟随太阳的动作之间永远处于某种循环关系中这次的作品同样如此一方面我们需要用曲线图这种理性工具去总结过去分析未来获得某种可控性而另一方面蛋壳的易碎特质永远是不可控的就像用这种涂料涂墙你不可能控制得了最终呈现的效果总有意外发生墙面总在不断剥落

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Cosmos Black is Spinning Around

Cosmos Black is Spinning Around | 宇宙在黑在旋

金属漆,铝板,太阳能双轴跟踪器,金属支架
metallic paint, aluminum, dual-axis solar tracker, metal stand
尺寸可变 | size variable
起始时间:2016.6.5
一块覆盖了“宇宙黑”的黑色方块被安放在全自动的双轴太阳能跟踪器上面。从此它将仰望苍穹永远追随着太阳运动。宇宙⿊黑是奔驰汽车的191#颜色

A piece of the “Cosmo Black” square was placed on top of the automatic dual-axis solar tracker. From now on it will look to the dome of the blue sky above, always following the movement of the sun. Cosmo black is Mercedes car standard color 191.

 

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《很有想法的雕塑》2016/A Sculpture of Thought

A Beautiful Disorder/Jul 3rd – Nov 6th
CASS SCULPTURE FOUNDATION
Similar to the A Painting of Thought series, the work contemplates issues essential to art from a three-dimensional perspective. Therefore A Sculpture of Thought and A Painting of Thought have a parallel relationship. The form of the sculpture also adopts directly from brain-teaser puzzles, everything is ready – images, colours, structure. All kinds of apparent visual elements combined with hidden abstract concepts are of essence to the creation of this piece. Through the manoeuvring of rational experience, texture of the material, visual recognition and all aspects of physical + mental sensations, the work forms a sudden satisfaction in pursuit of meaning. The material PVC plastic is widely used in the manufacturing of children’s slides, and the form of the sculpture is blown to 6 meters tall and placed in the reality of our social environment. The installation method also mimics construction toys, further lightens the sculpture with the plastic shine that’s apparent on actual children’s toys – a divine aura of the sculpture. A playful yet serious way of responding to the daily experience of plastic goods and their sparkles as the highlight of their times. The methods of evaluating / appreciating art elevates the position of gaming, yet at the same time the mundaneness and straightforwardness of gaming from both sensual and logical perspectives re-evaluates our aesthetic habits.
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邱文宝 /Voon Pow Bartlett    翻译:姚青

原文载于: Yishu典藏国际版July/August 2015, volume 14, number 4. P28-43.

黑色方块的冒险:抽象艺术与社会1915-2015,于2015年1月15日在伦敦白教堂美术馆(Whitechapel Gallery)对公众开放。白教堂美术馆的新闻通稿称其为“一场意义重大的新展览,梳理着从1915年至今一个世纪抽象艺术的脉络……”1展览的目的在于“重新审视”艺术、社会和政治之间的关系,给几何抽象艺术之进化带来新认识。展览的一百多件作品来自80位现当代艺术家,其中一些艺术家更是享有跨国甚至洲际知名度,例如俄罗斯的卡西米尔·马列维奇(Kasimir Malevich)——这在他著名画作黑与白至上主义组合(Black and White Suprematist Composition, 1915)诞生一百周年之际也就不足为奇了。其他如雷贯耳的大名还有:亚历山大·罗德琴科(Alexander Rodchenko),卡尔·安德烈(Carl Andre),丹·弗拉文(Dan Flavin),罗斯玛丽·特洛科尔(Rosemarie Trockel),特奥·凡·度斯堡(Theo Van Doesburg),皮埃·蒙德里安(Piet Mondrian)。展览使用了美术馆两层楼的绝大部分空间。为我们展现了结构主义艺术从兴起之初在俄罗斯与欧洲作为先锋艺术的革命性开始,到2015年遍布世界各地的漫漫过程。其中包括了中国、中东和南美。

对馆长伊娃娜·布雷兹维克(Iwona Blazwick)来说,抽象艺术是“是进步地平线上的岬角。它在研究上的空白意味着令人兴奋的未知元素和充满想象空间的多重可能”2在早期几何抽象艺术提议与“新型社会组织”建立联系的基础上。新闻通稿说明了本次展览的四个主题归纳如下:1)“乌托邦”,想象了一个新的超越等级和阶级的理想社会;2)“建筑学”,展现了抽象艺术如何加强社会转型的空间;3)“传播”,观察了抽象艺术调动彻底改革的可能性;4)“日常生活”,追寻了抽象艺术如何渗透到视觉艺术的各个层面,从公司标识到纺织品设计。

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Absolute Collection Guideline

绝对收藏指南

2015.98-10.8

Sifang Art Museum is pleased to present its first collection exhibition titled “Absolute Collection Guideline”, on view from June 8th – August 8th, 2015 at 9 Zhenqi Road, Nanjing. Based on the museum’s permanent collection, the exhibition will have a strong focus on recently acquired works from over twenty Chinese and international contemporary artists. This marks the first time for the museum collection to be open to public. The show will explore the various forms of expressions through a range of medias practiced by contemporary artists today. As it’s a loosely curated collection show, viewers can spend more time to reconnect the various points of ideas that exist between artworks, as well as to rediscover the power of individual works of art. Significant works from the prestigious Hugo Boss Prize winner Paul Chan and Danh Vo will be presented alongside a large scale venetian blind installation by acclaimed South Korean artist Haegue Yang. Major portion of the show consists of Chinese artists of both established and up-coming nature such as Wang Xinwei, Qui Xiaofei, Li Ming, Zhao Yao etc, as Chinese contemporary art still makes up most of the museum’s permanent collection. Japanese artists Takashi Murakami, Yayoi Kusama and Yoshitomo Nara are also part of the collection and are selected to be exhibited this time. Details »

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昨天深夜Y先生和大艺术家们【在三里屯跳大神】

2015-09-15 18:26  Ymedia(Y先生)

昨天凌晨两点钟,Y先生在三里屯太古里漆黑的某家店里亲眼目击了一件非常可怕的事,天了噜!好像看见衣服成精了……

关于这件非常诡异的事,Y先生还寻找到了一段故事:

鬼 剪

从前有个裁缝,被个满脸是毛,长着五条腿的鬼爪了,鬼说他小姨子的小孩满月,他需要一件华丽,与众不同的衣服,叫裁缝做出来,如果做好了,送他件宝物;做的不好,就把他拿去喂虫。那个虫屁股上有根刺,背上像液晶大屏幕一样全部都是人的脸,应该是那些被它吃掉的人,身上花纹随着呼吸会动。裁缝只能答应。鬼给他一把剪刀,这把剪刀能剪很多东西:剪山,剪河,剪季节,还能剪时间和光。凭借着自己的才华,加上这把剪刀,经过好久终于把衣服做出来了。鬼也说话算话,把剪刀送给了他。很多年过去了,这把剪刀今天在哪谁也不知道…

好了!Y先生不犯中二病了,昨天夜里也没看见鬼。Y先生只是昨天夜里两点围观了一下三位大艺术家何岸、陆平原、赵要以及UCCA的尤馆长一起在三里屯太古里的JNBY美丽旗舰店里布了一个展。而前面那段鬼故事,正是其中一位大艺术家陆平原为这个展览写的。

没有错!尊贵的B神清场看卢浮宫,屌丝就只能排队2小时入场。谁要在今天和一大帮媒体抢开幕新闻,Y先生就是要尊贵的独家报导昨天晚上布展时候的大抓马啊。

还是别跟LOW货聊艺术了【因为他们都是这样看展的】

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About Painting Too

与绘画的动作有关

2015/08/22-2015/11/01

“About Painting Too” is the second in a series of exhibitions that each addresses a topical issue within art today, and with particular reference to art in China. This year, young curator Pu Hong was invited to present a topic of his choice. Continuing the critical engagement with painting that was explored in the first exhibition in the series, “About Painting” in the spring of 2014, Pu Hong again takes painting as his subject. Through the work of eight artists, he selects a range of older and more recent works, each of which is distinctive of the style and approach for which each of the artists are known. Several, including Xu Zhen/MadeIn, Zhang Enli and Ding Yi, are very well known indeed and have, in recent years, been the subject of a series of large-scale solo exhibitions in China and abroad. In their especial way, Wang Chuan, Yang Shu and Xu Hongming have each made a significant contribution to the language of abstract painting in China, while the younger artists included here, Wang Guangle and Zhao Yao, bring the distinct energy of their generation to the art they produce.

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PAINTING OF THOUGHT/很有想法的繪畫

2015.01.15 – 02.26 | PACE HONG KONG

Written by Zhao Yao

 

Painting of Thought is a very apt and fitting title for these works. The two books that provided the source images for these paintings say the following on their covers:

 

  1. A magical book full of challenging wisdom, geniuses around the world are playing 1000 Thinking Games. Why are Japanese people so smart? An American had a sudden realization that thinking is built through play. (A must read for the never-surrendering Chinese. Nanhai Press, 2005.)

 

  1. Top international thinking games to rapidly unlock your mind’s potential. The 600 thinking games played by all the top students in the world will help you grasp effective methods for enhancing cognitive abilities, heightening powers of observation, analysis, logic, deduction, judgment, imagination, creativity, memory, thinking and action. The more you play, the smarter and more successful you will become. (600 Thinking Games from a century of Harvard students. Huawen Press, 2009.)

 

From the first painting, Painting of Thought has a sense of mission. How do we look at a painting? How do we understand a painting? How do we create a painting? This series approaches fundamental questions of art from the perspective of painting, particularly abstract painting. Unlike conceptual art in the general sense, this series is not expressing certain criticisms or concepts but instead practicing criticisms or concepts. First, everything here is readymade. Readymade images, readymade colors, readymade fabric, and a readymade understanding of painting. Furthermore, these readymade understandings and concepts of painting are produced by these readymade images, forms and materials. This also includes the understanding and ways of thinking about painting produced by existing art history education and artistic experience. The various visible visual elements and invisible abstract thoughts serve as the fundamental elements of creation, just like the colors and brushstrokes of painting, and they are combined together according to an internal logic and order. Details »

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Adventures of the Black Square/黑色方块的历险

Abstract Art and Society 1915–2015

Whitechapel Gallery

Opening on 15 January, this epic show takes Kazimir Malevich’s radical painting of a black square – first shown in Russia 100 years ago – as the emblem of a new art and a new society. The exhibition features over 100 artists who took up its legacy, from Buenos Aires to Tehran, London to Berlin, New York to Tel Aviv. Their paintings, photographs and sculptures symbolise Modernism’s utopian aspirations and breakdowns.

Presented chronologically the show follows four themes:

‘Utopia’ is expressed through Malevich’s black square, the progenitor of new aesthetic and political horizons, seized by artists from Vladimir Tatlin to Hélio Oiticica.

‘Architectonics’ presents floating geometries that propose new social spaces as imagined by Lyubov Popova or Piet Mondrian and Liam Gillick.

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INSIDE CHINA

L’Intérieur du Géant

20/10/2014 – 11/01/2015

With : Renaud JEREZ, LI Gang, Edwin LO, NADAR, Aude PARISET, WU Hao, YU Ji, ZHAO Yao, CHENG Ran

In the context of its international mission, the Palais de Tokyo chose curator Jo-ey Tang to travel to China and Southeast Asia. After a year of prospection, Inside China presents a selection of five Chinese artists in dialogue with three French artists including the renowned Nadar.

ZHAO YAOINSIDE CHINA : L’INTÉRIEUR DU GÉANT

 20/10/2014 – 11/01/2015

奇迹 美兰机场 小

HARMONIOUS SOCIETY/天下无事

27 SEPTEMBER – 23 NOVEMBER 2014

 

Zhao Yao

Wonder, 2014

奇迹

Zhao Yao has created contoured carpets featuring aerial views of Chinese airports undergoing development and expansion, reflective of the country’s rapid urbanization. Visitors are invited to walk across the carpets, like the travellers who pass through these airports, and when the exhibition is finished, they will bear the traces of those who have passed by.

HARMONIOUS SOCIETY/天下无事

Responding to the Asia Triennial Manchester 14 (ATM14) theme of ‘conflict and compassion’, this exhibition will be seen from an international perspective, re-examining the ‘conflicts’ as well as the ‘harmony’ of China, or indeed, the Greater China, and that of Asia and the world.

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Vitrines sur l’Art  at Galeries Lafayette/东京宫巴黎老佛爷展览项目

 Exhibition period: 07.07.2014-.7.30.2014

Zhao Yao’s works “Now” and “Great Performance No.4” will be shown at Galeries Lafayette in Paris. In Vitrines surl’Art of the Galeries Lafayette, in the framework of the partnership with K11 Art Foundation and the Modules-Foundation Pierre Bergé – Yves Saint Lauren hors les murs.

Vitrines surl’Art:
For the 6th consecutive year, Galeries Lafayette presents the event “Vitrines sur l’Art” from the 7th to the 30th July 2014 in Paris. Museums and arts centres are invited to sponsor window displays at the Haussmann store. This year, each institution teams up with one artist who makes one (or several) previously unseen installations for the windows. Through the works of the artists on display, visitors will have a panoramic vision of creation and design today and the cultural offerings of their city.
“Vitrines sur l’Art” forms part of Galeries Lafayette’s commitment connecting it with creation and design. Founded to democratize fashion and make the beautiful accessible to all, Galeries Lafayette puts its trust in artists to enlighten us on the future and open our eyes to the world of possibilities before us.
Curator Jo-ey Tang selected Zhao Yao as the artist of 2014. This is also the first time that Palais de Tokyo works with Chinese artist on the “Vitrines sur l’Art” project.
 

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Focus Beijing – De Heus-Zomer Collection

聚焦北京:德赫斯-佐莫收藏展

荷兰鹿特丹波伊曼斯·范伯宁恩美术馆
2014.06.14 – 2014.09.21

Zhao Yao, I am your night nr 9, 2011, Collection De Heus-Zomer

This summer Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen is showing a selection of contemporary Chinese art from the collection of Henk and Victoria de Heus-Zomer. Acquaint yourself with two generations of Chinese artists in the galleries around the Bodon Gallery. The exhibition provides a broad survey of developments in contemporary art in Beijing. The works are being publicly exhibited for the first time.

The exhibition ‘Focus Beijing’ features the work of two generations of prominent artists from Beijing. The first generation grew up in the 1950s and 1960s. They include Zhang Dali (Harbin, 1963), Zhang Xiaogang (Kunming, 1958), Hai Bo (Changchun, 1962) and Ai Weiwei (Beijing, 1957). Their work shows a strong sense of political engagement, referring to China’s traumatic history and the social and cultural revolutions of recent decades. The second generation grew up in the 1970s and 1980s: the period of China’s Open Door Policy. Artists such as Qiu Xiaofei (Hoerbin, 1977), Wang Guangle (Fujian, 1976) and Liang Yuanwei (Xi’an, 1977) were born in a period in which Chinese society became more oriented towards the West, a period of massive economic growth and new markets. Individuality and intuition are key to their artistic practice. They are informed better about international art developments than their Western counterparts are about current developments in Chinese art. The exhibition highlights the different standpoints of each artist, presenting a broad view of contemporary art developments in Beijing, with Shanghai, as the capital of Chinese Art.

 

万物有形

The Armory Show /纽约军械库艺术博览会 2014

 Private View: Wednesday, 5 March 2014, 2pm to 5pm (by invitation only)
Vernissage: Wednesday, 5 March 2014, 5pm to 8pm (by invitation only)
Public Days: 6-9 March 2014

Zhao Yao’s diverse practice incorporates installation,painting, video, photography, and other media. With a conceptual rigor, wry wit, and critical imperative uncommon for an artist his age, Zhao’s artwork reects on and deconstructs modalities of production and dissemination within contemporary art.

For Armory Focus: China, Beijing Commune will present a set of new works from Zhao’s series “A Painting of Thought”along with a new installation piece The Form of the Ten Thousand Things . “A Painting of Thought” appropriates the visual language of brainteasers to form quasi-modernist painting installations on found fabric. A more direct translation of the series’s title is “Very Clever Painting,”hinting that the artist is not merely interested in the abstract aesthetics of mental puzzles, but also in the individual and cultural constructions of meaning, by both artist and viewer, that mediate the experience of art. The tongue-in-cheek name of the series may refer to the tendency among audiences to “decode” and reduce artworks into packaged, easily digestible messages.

Zhao’s new installation piece The Form of the Ten Thousand Things inspires its title from renowned East Asian art historian Lothar Ledderose’s book Ten Thousand Things. The book describes modular systems of cultural production in ancient China, that is, the production of objects and cultural systems out of standardized parts. For his piece, Zhao takes as his medium die-cutting molds used in printing. The artist is interested in the metaphorical implications of these molds, which embody a peculiar conceptual duality of form and formlessness, abstract concept and physical product.The plating of the metal and imitation monumental appearance of the work imply a sense of reverence, though not without skepticism.

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